Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders <p><img style="padding-right: 15px; padding-bottom: 15px; float: left;" src="" />Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders (eISSN: 2207-3744) is a peer-reviewed, online-only, open-access journal that publishes basic science and clinical research articles on disorders of the kidneys and the liver. In addition to considering disorders of each organ separately, the journal aims to be a scholarly forum for discussing how disorders of one organ influence the other. Chronic liver disease is associated with primary and secondary kidney diseases. Similarly, renal disorders are associated with hepatic disorders. Original articles, reviews, and case reports on any aspects of nephrology and hepatology are suitable for submission.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Codon Publications en-US Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders 2207-3744 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="License" href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ul>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a> Metabolic Syndrome in Adults with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease <p>Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance, obesity, and other features of metabolic syndrome. It is identified as the most common cause of liver enzyme derangement. Lately, NAFLD has generated interest in exploring treatment options, including weight loss and dietary interventions. An association of NAFLD with metabolic syndrome has been suggested in contemporary literature. In this study, we attempted to look into the association of NAFLD with metabolic syndrome. In this study, 80 adult NAFLD patients were recruited from a tertiary care hospital. Among these, 42 were males and 38 females with a mean age of 44.46±13.146 years (range 18–82 years). Grades of fatty liver and presence or absence of metabolic syndrome were studied in this patient population. Patients who did not qualify for the criteria of metabolic syndrome were placed in Group 1 and those who fulfilled the stated criteria were considered in Group 2. There were 29 (36.25%) patients in Group 1 and 51 (63.75%) in Group 2. All the patients in Group 1 were having Grade I fatty liver whereas patients in Group 2 were found to having varying grades of fatty liver, with six patients having Grade III fatty liver. We found statistically significant difference in various parameters of study (liver enzymes, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and blood pressure) between Group 1 and Group 2. Ultrasound evidence of a fatty liver should be considered as a predictor of metabolic syndrome, and these patients must be investigated for the different components of metabolic syndrome so as to have early diagnosis and intervention to alter development of long-term metabolic disorders and their inherent complications.</p> Zhahid Hassan Muzamil Latief Mahroosa Ramzan Farhat Abbas Summyia Farooq Copyright (c) 2021 Zhahid Hassan, Muzamil Latief, Mahroosa Ramzan, Farhat Abbas, Summyia Farooq 2021-09-23 2021-09-23 5 2 34 37 10.15586/jrenhep.v5i2.99 The Role of the Liver in Iron Homeostasis and What Goes Wrong? <p>Iron is an essential mineral that is vital for growth development, normal cellular function, synthesis of hormones and connective tissue, and most importantly, serves as a component of hemoglobin to carry oxygen to body tissues. The body finely regulates the amount of circulating and stored iron within the body to maintain concentration levels within range for optimal physiologic function. Without iron, the ability for cells to participate in electron transport and energy metabolism decreases. Furthermore, hemoglobin synthesis is altered, which leads to anemia and decreased oxygen delivery to tissue. Problems arise when there is too little or too much iron. This review explores the role of the liver in iron physiology, iron overload and discusses the most common causes of primary and secondary hepatic iron overload.</p> Ernesto Robalino Gonzaga Irene Riestra Guiance Richard Henriquez Gerri Mortimore Jan Freeman Copyright (c) 2021 Ernesto Robalino Gonzaga, Irene Riestra Guiance, Richard Henriquez, Gerri Mortimore, Jan Freeman 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 5 2 26 33 10.15586/jrenhep.v5i2.110 Hepatic Vein and Inferior Vena Cava Reconstruction during Hepatic Surgery Resection for Cancer <p>Invasion of tumor in the liver requires surgical interventions that may reduce the effects or may eliminate the tumor-affected cells. The renewal of the hepatic vein and inferior vena cava has enabled most specialized oncologists and medical specialists to use advanced diagnostic methods in the treatment of the liver tumors. Liver resection has prolonged the lives of many patients and the invention of live donor organ transplants has effectively enabled the use of liver resection in most cancer centers across the world. By reviewing data from 10 articles, 21 surgical analyses were investigated and analyzed for the risks involved in the applications of reconstructions of hepatic vein and inferior vena cava in the surgical liver resection. The postoperative complications and the indications of reconstructions were mentioned. The results indicated that with these surgical procedures, complications are still involved but may be successful for particular patients.</p> Danilo Coco Silvana Leanza Copyright (c) 2021 Danilo Coco, Silvana Leanza 2021-09-09 2021-09-09 5 2 14 16 10.15586/jrenhep.v5i2.113 Comparison of Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy with Mini-Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Removal of Renal Stones in Adults <p>Renal stones are the third most common problem affecting about 10% of global population. The management of nephrolithiasis has undergone a complete transformation since the 1980s. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has established itself an effective and safe technique that delivers high stone-free rate as well as overall shorter treatment time. We aim to compare the outcome of mini-PCNL with standard-PCNL in patients presenting with renal stones. In all, 90 patients fulfilled the selection criteria and randomized into two groups. Group A underwent mini-PCNL whereas Group B underwent standard-PCNL. Pre-operative hemoglobin level was recorded. Duration of procedure as well as drop in hemoglobin level was also recorded. A kidney, ureter, and bladder (KUB) X-ray was performed to confirm the presence of stone and stone-free status. The mean age of patients in mini-PCNL group was 43.11 years and in standard-PCNL group, it was 36.91 years. The mean stone size in patients of mini-PCNL group was 29.53 mm and 31.58 mm in standard-PCNL group. The mean duration of renal stone in mini-PCNL group was 1.91 years and that in standard-PCNL group 1.80 years. The mean operative time in mini-PCNL group was 59.56 min and 61.22 min in standard-PCNL group. The mean fall in hemoglobin in mini-PCNL group was 0.38 g/dL and that in standard-PCNL group 0.51 g/dL. In mini-PCNL group, stone clearance was observed in 42 (93.3%) patients, while in standard-PCNL group, it was observed in 45 (100%) patients. This difference was insignificant (P &gt; 0.05). Mini-PCNL and standard-PCNL have no significant differences in terms of outcome, operative time, and stone clearance, although fall in hemoglobin level was less in mini-PCNL group, which showed less blood loss in this group, thereby making it a more appropriate method for renal stone removal.</p> Asif Alam Khan Inam Malkani Junaid Jameel Khattak Hassan Mumtaz Mubashir Mazhar Falak Naz Arsalan Riaz Copyright (c) 2021 Asif Alam Khan, Inam Malkani, Junaid jameel khattak, Hassan Mumtaz, Mubashir Mazhar, Falak Naz, Arsalan Riaz 2021-09-08 2021-09-08 5 2 20 25 10.15586/jrenhep.v5i2.118 Kidney Injury in Children Infected with HIV, Followed at the Teaching Hospital of Borgou (Benin): Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects <p>The history of kidney disease associated with HIV infection dates back to the years of HIV breakthrough. The objective was to study kidney damage in children infected with HIV at the Teaching Hospital of Borgou (Benin) in 2019. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical, matching-type study carried out from June 1, 2019 to September 30, 2019 at the pediatrics department of Teaching Hospital of Borgou (Benin). The study included HIV-positive children, followed in consultations, and whose parents gave their consent. The biological markers were demonstrated with urine dipstick. Glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the Schwartz test and classified according to stages. The dependent variable was the presence of at least one impairment (biological or functional). Sample size was determined by Schwartz’s method on the basis of one case for two controls. Sociodemographic, clinical, biological, and therapeutic data were collected. Comparisons were made using the Chi- square test or Fisher’s exact test. The identification of associated factors was possible using a multiple logistic regression model at 5% threshold. In total, we included 117 children, including 39 HIV-positive children. The average age was 8 ± 4.81 years and the gender ratio was 1:17. The frequency of kidney damage was 76.5%. Permanent proteinuria and at least two crosses on urine dipstick were present in 20.5%, leukocyturia in 2.6%, and proximal tubular dysfunction in 5.1%. Glomerular hyperfiltration was found in 38.5%, acute kidney injury in 38.5%, and chronic kidney injury in 5.1%. Associated factors were age (P = 0.004), presence of opportunistic infections (P = 0.00), and treatment adherence (P = 0.004). Kidney damage is common in HIV-positive children. Careful follow-up is necessary to avoid complications.</p> Séraphin Ahoui Falilatou Agbeille Gerard Kpanidja Alphonse Noudamadjo Muriel Fridzie Toutche Bruno Leopold Agboton Evariste Eteka Jacques Vigan Adedemy Julien Didier Joseph Agossou Copyright (c) 2021 Séraphin Ahoui, Falilatou Agbeille, Gerard Kpanidja, Alphonse Noudamadjo, Toutche Bruno Leopold Agboton, Evariste Eteka, Jacques Vigan, Julien Didier Adedemy, Joseph Agossou 2021-10-26 2021-10-26 5 2 50 56 10.15586/jrenhep.v5i2.120 Effect of High-Flux versus Low-Flux Dialysis on the Rate of Bacteremia in Hemodialysis Patients: A Single Center Study <p>Bacteremia in dialysis patients is a major risk factor of mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of dialysis with high-flux versus low-flux dialyzer regarding risk of bacteremia in dialysis patients. This was a retrospective cohort study that included dialysis patients who underwent dialysis therapy at old dialysis center where old low-flux dialyzers were used and the new dialysis center where high-flux dialyzers were used. The rate of positive culture was more in high-flux group (37.0%) compared to low-flux group (24.5%), although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.13). The vascular access was mostly permanent catheter in high-flux group compared to low-flux group (48.9% vs. 28.6%, respectively; P = 0.06), while arteriovenous (AV) fistula was more prominent in low-flux group compared to high-flux group (65.3% vs. 47.8%, respectively; P = 0.06). This was reflected in the type of bacteria, which was mostly from Gram-positive family (Staphylococcus). The results showed higher risk of bacteremia in high-flux group as compared to low-flux group; however, permanent catheters were more prominent in high-flux group.</p> Ali Dahouk Loubna Sinno Housam Rabah Copyright (c) 2021 Ali Dahouk, Loubna Sinno, Housam Rabah 2021-07-10 2021-07-10 5 2 1 5 10.15586/jrenhep.v5i2.114 Automobile Paint Reducer Induced Acute Kidney Injury: A Case Series <p>The various aspects of the automobile industry also carry with it the risk for occupational health hazards with it. Toluene has also evolved as a commonly used drug by substance abusers. Accidental exposure or self-poisoning with these substances has been reported in literature. These substances can also cause distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), acute tubular necrosis, glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis, rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinemia.</p> <p>In this series, we report about three patients who developed renal manifestations because of organic solvents. Two of the three patients had ingested the paint reducer substance and the third one was addicted to sniffing the toluene based paint reducer. All the patients had in taken these substances s with suicidal intent and developed acute kidney injury (AKI) and severe metabolic acidosis. One of the patients had features of rhabdomyolysis as well. The third patient was a substance abuser and had inhaled higher than usual dose and developed severe and refractory acidosis and mild kidney injury and required Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) for acidosis. All the patients eventually recovered their kidney functions and were doing well during their follow-up.</p> <p>Toluene based organic solvents lead to acute neurological symptoms, accompanied by severe metabolic alterations, organ injury and dysfunction. An association of the development of hypokalemic paralysis and metabolic acidosis with toluene intoxication has been observed. The management of acute toluene toxicity is mainly conservative, consisting of electrolytes correction, acid-base and fluid abnormalities and renal replacement therapy in severe AKI.</p> <p>Organic solvent exposure may result in acute tubular necrosis, rhabdomyolysis, RTA and AKI irrespective of the intake route. Clinical suspicion of organ dysfunction and failure and timely induction of supportive care leads to a good outcome.</p> Muzamil Latief Zhahid Hassan Mohd Latief Wani Farhat Abbas Summyia Farooq Copyright (c) 2021 Muzamil Latief, Zhahid Hassan, Mohd Latief Wani, Farhat Abbas, Summyia Farooq 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 5 2 10 13 10.15586/jrenhep.v5i2.116 Sewing Needle as Foreign Body in Urethra of an Adolescent Boy: Case Report <p>Self-insertion of a foreign body in the urethra is an uncommon presentation clinically. The cases usually arise due to fulfillment of sexual desire, for recreation, play, or exploration, or the foreign body insertion may take place accidentally. We present a case of an adolescent boy with a foreign body urethra presenting to the emergency room with urinary retention, pain, and dysuria. Attending urologist suspected urethral stricture and ordered ultrasonography to investigate which turned out to be a sewing needle in his urethra. The patient was then enquired about the foreign body. He tried to self-dilate his urethra as he was experiencing lower urinary tract symptoms. The sewing needle was removed by endoscopy and he was administered with antibiotics and painkillers. The urethral foreign bodies may present with pain, dysuria, or urinary incontinence and these foreign bodies are mostly seen in the male population in the adolescent age group.</p> Kashif Bangash Muhammad Naeem Hassan Mumtaz Aaliah Akhtar Hayat Mubashar Mazhar Shahzaib Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Kashif Bangash, Muhammad Naeem, Hassan Mumtaz, Aaliah Akhtar Hayat, Mubashar Mazhar, Shahzaib Ahmad 2021-09-08 2021-09-08 5 2 17 19 10.15586/jrenhep.v5i2.119 A Neglected Case of Wilson’s Disease Presenting as Symptomatic Urolithiasis and Proteinuria: A Case Report and Review of the Literature <p>We report a short-statured, 39-year-old male presenting with recurrent kidney stones, history of refractory rickets, and bone deformity. He had been consuming multiple doses of calcium supplements and multiple courses of vitamin D over past 30 years before prior to reporting in our clinic without any significant laboratory or clinical improvement. The patient was diagnosed as having Fanconi’s syndrome attributable to Wilson’s disease. This patient highlighted that in case of resistant rickets, a high index of uncertainty must be invoked for Wilson’s disease. Appropriate timely recognition of this entity results in prompt ministrations and prevention of disability. We also presented and discussed reviews on Wilson’s disease from literature.</p> Elham Zare Zahra Mahbubi Maryam Panahi Copyright (c) 2021 Elham Zare, Zahra Mahbubi, Maryam Panahi 2021-10-07 2021-10-07 5 2 39 44 10.15586/jrenhep.v5i2.123 Orthotopic Liver Transplantation in a Case of Novel YAP1-TFE3 Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma [HEHE]; Case Report and Review of Literature <p>Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is an extremely rare vascular neoplasm arising in soft-tissues and different visceral organs, with liver being the most commonly involved viscera. Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) is a malignant tumour with an indolent behaviour and unpredictable clinical course. It has a better prognosis among the malignant tumours of the liver, in spite of being a diffuse multifocal liver disease or metastatic at the time of presentation. HEHE is usually found to be noted in the fifth decade with slight female preponderance. No single treatment strategy has yet been established owing to its variable clinical course, ranging from an indolent tumour with prolonged survival to an aggressive, metastatic disease with a fatal outcome. Here, we present a case of a novel HEHE in a 25-year-old female who was treated successfully with orthotopic living donor liver transplantation and discuss the presentation, histopathology and management of this rare, fatal yet treatable malignant tumour.</p> Sugi SRV Elankumaran Krishnan Kulaseharan Venugopal Haribabu Hari Balakrishnan Shantha Ravisankar Copyright (c) 2021 Sugi SRV, Elankumaran Krishnan, Kulaseharan Venugopal Haribabu, Hari Balakrishnan, Shantha Ravishankar 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 5 2 45 49 10.15586/jrenhep.v5i2.122 Ex vivo Resection for Renal Cancer: Indications and Results in Specific Clinical Scenarios <p>To retrospectively evaluate databases for indications and results of “bench surgery technique” in ex vivo or ex situ renal cancer resection as a lost alternative of savage renal function in renal malignancy or benign large tumors.</p> <p>We retrospectively evaluated PUBMED databases, including studies from 1980 to 2020. Only very few studies had analyzed “ex vivo [and] ex situ renal resection, extracorporeal renal resection, [and] renal autotransplantation.”</p> <p>Ex vivo renal resection and autotransplantation is the last chance in patients with renal cancer, but manifests numerous difficulties during and after the surgery. However, we noted that in some patients it provided good control over cancer, prevented long-term dialysis, and avoided renal transplantation, thus giving patients a good quality of life.</p> Danilo Coco Silvana Leanza Copyright (c) 2021 Danilo Coco, Silvana Leanza 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 5 2 6 9 10.15586/jrenhep.v5i2.109